THE BUTTERFLIES OF GREECE

The second revised and enlarged edition

With the collaboration of STAVROS  K. STAVRIDIS in creation of maps, diagrams and plates

by Lazaros N. Pamperis

Kindly supported by

The J. F. Costopoulos Foundation

 
LIST OF THE CHAPTERS


1.	THE EXTERNAL FEATURES	
	- Introduction	
	- “Thinking about the names is the first step to wisdom”	
	- Classification of the species	
	- The life cycle and the metamorphosis	
	- The egg	
	- The caterpillar	
	- The chrysalis	
	- The adult	
	- Identification based on the phenotype	
	- Butterflies and moths	

2.	THE ENVIRONMENT OF GREECE	
	- Introduction	
	- Geology	
	- Climate	
	- Plants	

3.	DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES	
	- Introduction	
	- Dubious records	
	- Families: PAPILIONIDAE, DANAIDAE, RIODINIDAE, LIBYTHEIDAE, PIERIDAE,   LYCAENIDAE, NYMPHALIDAE, SATYRIDAE, HESPERIIDAE	
        - Photographs of dubious records
        - Cacyreus marshalli	
	- Photographs of moths	

4.	ECOLOGY
	- Introduction
	- The life cycle
	- Searching for the food plant	
	- The unfriendly world	
	- Survival	
	- Reproduction of the species	
	- Various habitats	
	- Rarity	
	- Factors of threat	
	- Endemic species. The problem of subspecies	
	- Estimation of the status - Threatened species	
	- Origin and distribution of species in Greece	
	- Need for protection
	- Morphometrical analysis for species of genus Hipparchia
	- Morphometrical analysis for species of genus Polyommatus
- Species of genus Erebia and the Proterebia afra in several areas of Greece
- The butterflies of the islands of Greece
- Important butterfly areas of Greece

	GLOSSARY	
	BIBLIOGRAPHY	
	INDEX	
	POSTSCRIPTS
        NOTES
        CORRECTIONS
                                      


LIST OF PLATES DIAGRAMS MAPS AND FIGURES 


Figure	1.1	Butterflies from ancient Greece	
Figure	1.2	A typical life cycle	
Figure	1.3	The typical form of a caterpillar	
Figure	1.4	The typical form of an adult	
Figure	1.5	The “map” of the wings	
Map	2.1	Geological zones of Europe	
Map	2.2	Geotectonic zones of Greece	
Map	2.3	Climate types of Greece	
Map	2.4	Annual rainfall in Greece	
Diagram	2.5	Temperature and rainfall for the last 44 years in Greece	
Diagram	3.1	Species and families	
Map	3.2.1	The major geographical areas of Greece
Map           3.2.2	Division of Greece into 13 floristic regions
Map, 
diagrams 
and Plates	3.3	  Typical presentation of a species	
Map	3.4	  Investigated localities for all species	
Figures	3.5.1-14   Characteristic marks of the species	
Plates	3.6.1-2     Summary of the description of the species	
Plate	4.1	  Number of localities, from plates K,L,M,N and O for all 234 species	
Plate	4.2	  Endemic species
Plate	4.3	  Status and trend in distribution of species
Plate	4.4	  Species in Greece and neighbouring countries
Plate	4.5	  Number of species in families in several localities	
Figure	4.6 	  Morphometrical analysis for species of genus Hipparchia.
Plate    	4.7 	  Morphometrical analysis for species of genus Hipparchia.
Charts 	4.8.a, b, c Morphometrical analysis for species of genus Hipparchia.
Figures	4.9.1-2	  Details of the unh for individuals of genus Hipparchia.
Plate	4.10.1	  Results of morphometrical analysis of 421 males of genus Polyommatus.
Plate	4.10.2      Results of morphometrical analysis of 335 females of genus Polyommatus.
Plate 	4.11	  Species of genus Erebia and the Proterebia afra in several areas of Greece
Plate          4.12         Species, area and months of the investigations for 81 islands of Greece
Chart         4.13         Species and area for groups of 81 islands of Greece
Chart         4.14         Estimation of species in Aegean
Chart         4.15         Total number of species for all 1260 localities 6’X6’
Chart         4.16         Important butterfly areas in Greece

CONTENTS



• List of plates, diagrams, maps and figures

• List of the chapters

• Abbreviations


ABBREVIATIONS

•	Wings
	upf   	:	the upperside of fore wing (wings)
	unf   	:	the underside of fore wing (wings)
	uph   	:	the upperside of hind wing (wings)
	unh   	:	the underside of hind wing (wings)
	ups   	:	the upperside of wing (wings)
	uns   	:	the underside of wing (wings)
	fw    	:	fore wing (wings)
	hw    	:	hind wing (wings)
	V1-V12	:	Veins
	S1-S12	:	Spaces


•	Countries
	I: Italy, AL: Albania, FYROM: the former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, BG: Bulgaria, TR: Turkey, CY: Cyprus


•	Major geographical areas of Greece
	THR: Thrace, MAC: Macedonia, EPI: Epirus, THE: Thessaly, SHE: Sterea Hellas, PEL: Peloponnese, AEG: Aegean Islands, ION: Ionian Islands, CRE: Crete


•	Degree of threat (see Chapter 4)


•	Symbols on the maps and plates (see Chapter 3).



First Edition: Athens 1997

Second Edition revised and enlarged: Athens 2009

ISBN: 978-960-9270-1-2




    All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author and the publisher.



© 1997-2016 Copyright of the book:

Lazaros N. Pamperis, P.O.Box 1220, 41110 Lárisa, GREECE

Telephon and FAX: +(30)2410286406, e-mail: pamperis ( at ) otenet.gr



© 1997-2016 Copyright of all photographs, texts, maps, slides, icons, figures, diagrams, plates, charts and maps:

Lazaros N. Pamperis, P.O.Box 1220, 41110 Lárisa, GREECE

Telephon and FAX: +(30)2410286403, e-mail: pamperis ( at ) otenet.gr

Production: KOAN Editions

Design, Page Editor, Art Director

and Cover Design: John Vergitsis, Graphic Arts “SHMEIO”

Color separations and printing: BAXAS S.A.

Production of the book

Publisher

PAMPERIS Editions